Yellow Springs will develop and evolve in an ecologically and economically sustainable manner through thoughtful, measured development activities.
Existing Land Use
The existing land uses within the Village reflect its largely residential roots and commitment to parks and open space. The current land uses within the Village are illustrated on the figure to the left.
The community engagement efforts formulating this Plan largely reinforced the community’s commitment and agreement with the nine land use principles identified in 2010, with minor updates reflecting the ten-year span since the values were developed.
One of the key outcomes from past planning efforts is the desire for Yellow Springs to remain a Village (a population of less than 5,000 persons). Demographic projections anticipate growth rates of less than 1% annually, so it is unlikely the Village will grow in any dramatic manner over the next ten years.
However, there is also a desire for the Village to accommodate some residential growth in an affordable manner. The cost of housing has outpaced inflation, and there is a growing concern that residents and employees are being priced out of the Village.
Additionally, there is a desire to diversify the economic base in two ways. First, by broadening the tax base so the costs of municipal services are spread across a larger customer base. Secondly, there is a desire to diversify the economic sectors (types of jobs). A diverse economy is more resilient to the swings of the economic cycle and positions the Village to better navigate downturns.
The future land use map and development principles and strategies articulated within this draft are based on this overall vision: The Village will maintain its commitment to diversity, equity, sustainability, environmental stewardship and a high quality of life for all who live, work and play in Yellow Springs.
Based on that vision, the following values are articulated in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan, Future Land Use map and Thoroughfare and Active Transportation Plan maps:
The Village will develop and evolve in an ecologically and economically sustainable manner, through thoughtful, measured development activities
Infill development and redevelopment will be encouraged over greenfield development
All development activities will occur within the established Urban Service Boundary area (USB)
Places will be connected and complete streets principles will apply to the transportation network
Parks and open space shall be integrated or accommodated into new developments
Future land uses should reflect the values of the community and build on the strengths of the Village
Diverse housing options will be promoted within the Village
Economic development activities will reflect the strengths of the Village, promote wealth creation for all residents and contribute to the economic sustainability of the Village
Historically, culturally and ecologically important areas will be actively preserved from adverse land uses
Future Land Use
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The Future Land Use map serves as a general outline for the future uses of land and development patterns of the Village. The map is meant to serve as a guide for future land development and zoning applications. While the map generally follows parcel lines, the boundaries may be fluid in their application to best meet the needs of the Village, neighborhoods and the immediate neighbors. The Future Land Use map is a guide for the future development of land within the Village, including land potentially annexed into the Village, within the Urban Service Boundary. This is consistent with the Comprehensive Land Use Plan.
General land use categories are applied to currently developed and undeveloped land within the Village boundary based on Village needs, transportation access, utilities and surrounding land uses.
Low-Density Residential: This land use is comprised of larger one- or two-family residential uses on larger lots with a density of 4 – 6 units per acre. The development pattern is singularly residential and reflects a more rural design aesthetic including deeper setbacks and wider side yards.
Medium-Density Residential: This land use is comprised of smaller one- or two-family residential uses on smaller area lots and small apartment buildings. The density is typically 6 – 10 units per acre. The development pattern is more traditional with connected streets, rather than cul-de-sacs, shallower setbacks and narrower side yards.
High-Density Residential: This land use contains high-density residential or mixed uses on smaller lots. The density is typically between 10 – 16 units per acre. This development pattern may have very shallow building setbacks and is intended to be the highest density residential district.
Downtown Commercial: This district is the traditional downtown business district that accommodates a variety of residential, office, light industrial and entertainment uses. The development pattern represents a traditional downtown with no required building setbacks. Buildings should have active, commercial first floor uses with upper level, residential permitted. Activities such as sidewalk cafes and other uses that promote pedestrian activities should be encouraged.
Auto-oriented uses (auto repair, gas stations, auto sales, drive-thru) should be prohibited or designed in a manner that does not break up the rhythm of the street and minimizes pedestrian and vehicle conflicts.
General Commercial: General Commercial districts are designed to accommodate those uses that are more auto-oriented and are not appropriate for the Downtown Commercial district. This includes motor vehicle sales and service, fueling stations and uses that generally require significant parking.
Retail, personal services and entertainment uses should primarily be located in the Downtown Commercial District to ensure a critical mass of active uses downtown.
Institutional Mixed Use: The Institutional Mixed-Use district is designed to accommodate large, multi-building and multi-use developments that function in a campus-like manner, such as the Antioch Campus. This district accommodates a mixture of office, education, residential and other uses that are accessory to the overall use of the property.
Public Use: The public use district are uses that are typically open to the public or publicly supported such as schools, places of worship, government buildings, etc.
Light Industrial: Light Industrial uses include manufacturing, distribution, assembly of goods, parts and/or finished goods. Light industrial uses are wholly enclosed in a building and have no outdoor storage of equipment, materials or parts.
Medium Industrial: Medium Industrial uses include the manufacturing and assembly or distribution of parts, equipment and other materials. Medium Industrial uses may include limited outdoor staging of finished products for distribution or shipment. The outdoor storage of equipment or materials should be discouraged or minimized.
Parks and Open Space: Parks and Open-Space districts are lands that serve a recreation or conservation purpose and are owned by a governmental entity or non-profit agency. The purpose of the district is to facilitate the recreational and open space nature of the land, minimizing uses that may negatively impact its recreational, natural or cultural importance.
Transitional Future Land Use Districts
Transitional Future Land Use districts are those areas located outside of the Village boundary, but within the Urban Service Boundary area and could support multiple land uses depending on market forces and Village needs. The purpose of these districts are to provide policy guidance to developers and stakeholders on the range of land uses that are desirable and acceptable to the Village; and conversely, those uses that should be avoided because of their negative impact on surrounding properties, or the environmental and economic sustainability of the Village.
The proposed range of uses within the districts were determined based on these factors:
The proximity to environmentally sensitive areas such as the Village drinking water well and recharge areas
The economic and housing development needs of the Village
Existing land uses within the Village and the desire to strengthen the Village’s economic base, not introducing uses that could threaten the economic viability of downtown
The existing uses in close proximity to these districts
These districts are key gateways into the Village. Future developments should be designed in a manner that creates an attractive entrance into the Village.
West Transitional Future Land Use District
The West Transitional Future Land Use District is generally located north of the intersection of Dayton-Yellow Springs and Enon Roads. Located outside of the Village boundary, the land is within the USB. The existing land uses surrounding this district are a mixture of industrial, office, public use and residential. The area has access to public utilities and is outside of the wellfield capture zone.
The suggested future land use areas include:
Light Industrial / Office. This broad category includes uses such as light manufacturing, education and research, office, assembly, food production or processing and other agricultural uses that are compatible in a built environment.
Light Industrial / Residential Transition. This area is suitable for either light industrial uses as outlined above, or medium- or high-density residential development. The site is adjacent to land zoned industrial and residential. Future development in this area should recognize the existing surrounding land uses and be designed in a manner to compliment those uses. The development should integrate recommendations of the Active Transportation Plan and Complete Streets policies.
Future land uses to discourage or prohibit:
Retail and Entertainment. Retail, food and entertainment, and personal service establishments may detract from, and potentially harm, the critical mass of the downtown area.
Heavy Industry. Heavy industry tends to require large areas of outdoor storage, which could detract from this key gateway into the Village. Additionally, while the area is outside of the wellfield capture zone, there is no assurance that chemical pollutants will not infiltrate the groundwater.
These sites are key gateways and future developments should be designed to create an attractive entrance into the Village. Buildings should orient toward Enon or Dayton-Yellow Springs Road. All service, loading and storage areas should be screened from view along both roads. Large street-facing facades should be broken up through wall articulation, windows or other methods that are visually appealing.
South Transitional Future Land Use District
The South Transitional Future Land Use District is outside of the Village boundary, but within the USB area. The district contains areas delineated on each side of Xenia Avenue. The largest area is between Enon Road and Xenia Avenue. Currently, the area is primarily agricultural, with low density residential along Enon Road. The second is east of Xenia Avenue at the Village boundary. Both areas are within the wellfield capture zone.
The suggested future land use areas include:
Office / Research. This category includes uses such as professional offices, research and education, light assembly or other similar uses that do not use significant amounts of solvents, posing a threat to the groundwater.
Residential. A variety of residential densities including low-, medium- and high-density residential are appropriate within this transitional land use district.
Park Expansion. Land adjacent to Gaunt Park should be reserved for future park expansion opportunities.
Future land uses to discourage or prohibit:
Retail and Entertainment. Retail, food and entertainment and personal service establishments may detract from, and potentially harm, the critical mass of the downtown area
Medium and Heavy Industry. This area is within the wellfield capture zone. Uses that could pose a hazard to the drinking water system should be prohibited.
The sites along Xenia Avenue are key southern gateways. Future developments should be designed in a manner that creates an attractive entrance into the Village. Buildings should orient toward Xenia Avenue. All parking areas should be to the side or rear of the buildings. All service, loading and storage areas should be located to the rear of the buildings or be screened from view.
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Future annexation efforts by the Village of Yellow Springs shall be consistent with the land use principles outlined within this Plan, including limiting development to areas within the USB. Village-owned property not targeted for development and located outside of the USB may also be annexed into the Village, including land used for utilities, parks and other public facilities.